Spatial Positioning Token (SPToken) for Smart Parking

In this paper, we describe an approach to guide drivers searching for a parking space (PS). The proposed system suggests a sequence of routes that drivers should traverse in order to maximise the expected likelihood of finding a PS and minimise the travel distance. This system is built on our recent architecture SPToken, which combines both Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Reinforcement Learning (RL) to realise a system for the estimation of an unknown distribution without disturbing the environment. For this, we use a number of virtual tokens that are passed from vehicle to vehicle to enable a massively parallelised RL system that estimates the best route for a given origin-destination (OD) pair, using crowdsourced information from participant vehicles. Additionally, a moving window with reward memory mechanism is included to better cope with non-stationary environments. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficacy of our system.

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